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DNA Reference Works

Articles and Blog Posts by Debbie

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "An Introduction to DNA and Genetic Genealogy." Texas State Genealogical Society Stirpes 49 (June 2009): 21-25.

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "atDNA: I Don't Match My Cousin's Cousin." Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 22 September 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Disappointed in DNA test results?" Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 16 September 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "DNA: Patents, Permissions, Property, Ethics." Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 7 October 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Free Genes vs. Patented Genes." Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 7 September 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Genetic Genealogy: Getting the Most from DNA Test Results in 2011." Texas State Genealogical Society Stirpes 51 (September 2011): 29-34.

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "My Mitochondrial Mothers," Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 21 October 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Percentage Shared atDNA Chart." Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 29 October 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Using mitochondrial DNA for Genealogy."National Genealogical Society NGS Magazine 39 (October-December 2013): 26-30.

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Using Y-DNA for Genealogy." National Genealogical Society NGS Magazine 40 (January-March 2014): 20-24.

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "Why So Much Excitement about Ethnicity Predictions?" Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 18 September 2013 ( : 2014).

Wayne, Debbie Parker. "X-DNA Inheritance Charts." Deb's Delvings Blog, posted 25 October 2013 ( : 2014).

For other articles on Deb's Delvings Blog use the topic links on the right hand navigation bar or the search tool.

Journals Articles - DNA and Genealogy

Leary, Helen F. M., Certified Genealogist. "Sally Hemings's Children: A Genealogical Analysis of the Evidence." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89 (September 2001): 165-207. Special issue on Jefferson-Hemings.

Lustenberger, Anita A., Certified Genealogist and certified genetic counselor. "Genetics & Genealogy," genetics column in New England Ancestors, starting in Fall 2002 issue.

Moneta, Daniela, Certified Genealogist. “Identifying the Children of David Pugh and Nancy Minton of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee,” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 96 (March 2008): 13-22.

Moneta, Daniela, Certified Genealogist. "Virginia Pughs and North Carolina Wests: A Genetic Link from Slavery in Kentucky." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 97 (September 2009): 179-194. Demonstrates the use of DNA to help determine the parentage of a family descended from slaves.

Morse, Stephen P. "From DNA to Genetic Genealogy, Everything you wanted to know but were afraid to ask." Association of Professional Genealogists Quarterly (March 2009): 27-37.

Morse, Stephen P. "Genealogy Beyond the Y Chromosome: Autosomes Exposed." (

Books, e-books, and Journals - DNA and Genealogy

National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Theme Issue on Genetics and Genealogy, Vol. 93, No. 4, December 2005.

Bettinger, Blaine, JD, PhD. I Have the Results of My Genetic Genealogy Test, Now What? (self-published, 2008); v2.0 download at covers Y-DNA and mtDNA.
A v2.1 version with atDNA added is available from

Fitzpatrick, Colleen and Andrew Yeiser. DNA and Genealogy. Fountain Valley, Cal., Rice Book Press, 2005.

Fitzpatrick, Colleen. Forensic Genealogy. Fountain Valley, Cal., Rice Book Press, 2005.

     Note: The Fitzpatrick books go into more of the technical details of DNA analysis for genealogical purposes.

Hill, Richard. Finding Family: My Search for Roots and the Secrets in My DNA. n.p.: self-published, 2012. Order at or Amazon. (See my review.)

Hill, Richard. How to Identify Ancestors and Confirm Relationships through DNA Testing. Self-published e-book, 2009. Free download.

Kennett, Debbie. DNA and Social Networking: A Guide to Genealogy in the Twenty-first Century. Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press, 2011. Order at History Press or Amazon. (See my review.)

Shawker, Dr. Thomas. Unlocking Your Genetic History. Nashville, Tenn., Rutledge Hill Press, 2004.

Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak and Ann Turner. Trace Your Roots with DNA. Emmaus, Penn., Rodale Press, 2004.

Books - DNA Technology and Forensics
(For a deeper understanding of the technological aspects of DNA and the process of analysis.)

Butler, John M. Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers. Second edition. Burlington, Mass., Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.

Michaelis, Ron C., Robert G. Flanders, and Paula H. Wulff. A Litigator's Guide to DNA: From the Laboratory to the Courtroom. Burlington, Mass., Academic Press, 2008.

Perlin, Mark W., PhD, MD. "Easy Reporting of Hard DNA: Computer Comfort in the Courtroom." Forensic Magazine. Posted 10 August 2012. : 2012. Other similar articles available here.

DNA Advisory Board. "Statistical and Population Genetics Issues Affecting the Evaluation of the Frequency of Occurrence of DNA Profiles Calculated From Pertinent Population Database(s)." Forensic Science Communications. Online FBI journal. : 2012.

Books - DNA and Deep Ancestry of Humans
(Some of these books offer controversial theories on the migration of early humans.)

Olson, Steve. Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002.

Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Origins of the British, A Genetic Detective Story: The Surprising Roots of the English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh. New York: Carrol & Graf Publishers, 2006.

    Note: JOGG article by Kevin D. Campbell analyzing Oppenheimer's clan definitions.

Sykes, Bryan. DNA USA. New York: Liveright c/o W. W. Norton, 2012.

Sykes, Bryan. The Seven Daughters of Eve. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2001.

Sykes, Bryan. Adam's Curse. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2004.

Sykes, Bryan. Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland. (Published in the UK as Blood of the Isles.) New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2006.

Wells, Spencer. Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. New York, Random House, 2002.

Wells, Spencer. Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project. Washington, DC: National Genographic Society, 2006.

Wells, Spencer. Deep Ancestry Second Edition: How DNA Reveals the Roots of Your Family. DC: National Geographic Society, 2011.

Wells, Spencer. Pandora's Seed: The Unforeseen Cost of Civilization. New York: Random House, 2010.

Technical and Scientific Papers

Technical Papers on DNA can be found on many Web sites and using Google Scholar.

European Journal of Human Genetics, free access -

Family Tree DNA - or on the home page scroll down and click on "Scientific Papers"

Nature journal, free access to 1998-2005 -

PubMed Central - Open Access -


International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) -

ISOGG Wiki -

Journal of Genetic Genealogy (JOGG) - (Combined Table of Contents list available here.)

DNA Testing Adviser (Richard Hill) - - Free guide: How to Identify Ancestors and Confirm Relationships through DNA Testing and information on using DNA for adoption research

Identifinders (Colleen Fitzpatrick) -
Forensic Genealogy (Colleen Fitzpatrick) -

Genetealogy (Megan Smolenyak) -

Genetics And Us -

Kerchner's site with DNA glossary -

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) -

Primer on Molecular Genetics (US DOE) -

Personal Genome Project Study Guide -

Significant Online Articles

Bettinger, Blaine. "Problems with AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction?" The Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 19 June 2012. : 2012.

Bettinger, Blaine. "Q&A: Everyone Has Two Family Trees – A Genealogical Tree and a Genetic Tree" The Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 10 November 2009. : 2012.

Moore, CeCe. "My Review of AncestryDNA's Admixture Tool and a Glimpse into the Future of Genetic Genealogy." Your Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 26 June 2012. : 2012.

Owston, Jim. "Triangulating Autosomal DNA Data." The Lineal Arboretum Blog, posted 8 July 2012. : 2012.

Mail Lists and Groups

DNA-Newbie Yahoo Forum -

Genealogy DNA List on RootsWeb -

Autosomal DNA List on RootsWeb -

There are also many lists related to DNA research on a specific surnames, DNA signatures, ethnic groups, and localities.


Deb's Delvings - Newsest article at or all DNA related articles

Dienekes' Anthropology Blog -

DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy (Roberta Estes) -

Genealem's Genetic Genealogy (Emily Aulicino) -

Genetic Genealogist (Blaine T. Bettinger, ) -

Genomes Unzipped: Public Personal Genomics -

John Hawks Weblog -

Lineal Arboretum, The (Jim Owston) -

On-line Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Steven Perkins) -

Razib Khan Blog -

Your Genetic Genealogist (CeCe Moore) -

DNA Testing Companies

ISOGG Y-DNA Testing Comparison Chart -

ISOGG mtDNA Testing Comparison Chart -

Converting markers between commercial companies -

Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) - - offers autosomal, Y-DNA, mtDNA, and specialized tests for ancestral purposes (2011: acquired DNA Heritage and

23andMe - - offers autosomal DNA tests that cover both health-related and ancestral purposes

African Ancestry -

DNA Ancestry - not recommended until they make autosomal data available to those who test (Relative Genetics acquired by; in 2012 Ancestry acquired Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group and GeneTree) - Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group (SMGF) -

DNA Fingerprint -

EthnoAncestry -

Oxford Ancestors -

Other Educational Information and Videos

Wayne, Debbie Parker, Blaine Bettinger, and CeCe Moore. Practical Genetic Genealogy. Genealogical Research Institute of Pittsburgh (GRIP). A full week of practical, hands-on experience analyzing and correlating DNA test results using the latest tools and techniques. The first course will be offered in July 2014.

Wayne, Debbie Parker, Blaine Bettinger, Angie Bush, and CeCe Moore. Getting Started with Genetic Genealogy. Salt Lake Institute of Genealogy (SLIG). A full week of practical, hands-on experience analyzing and correlating DNA test results using the latest tools and techniques. The first course will be offered in January 2015.

Miami Institute of Human Genomics -

Science of DNA Testing (7 parts)
DNA (1 of 7)
DNA (2 of 7)
DNA (3 of 7)
DNA (4 of 7)
DNA (5 of 7) PCR
DNA (6 of 7) Profiles
DNA (7 of 7)

Miscellaneous Illustrations and Explanations

FTDNAChannel on YouTube -

Illustration of recombination

SMGF video on autosomal DNA

Cracking the Code of Life. PBS NOVA episode, broadcast 17 April 2001. Available on DVD : 2012. See "Related Links."

Cracking Your Genetic Code. PBS NOVA episode, broadcast 28 March 2012. Available online at : 2012. See "Related Links."

Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – Y-DNA

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group Y-DNA DB (SMGF data) - (acquired by so the database URL may change)

STRbase - NIST -

US Y-STR DB (Forensic data for estimating population frequencies for forensic work) -

Ysearch (FTDNA data and publicly submitted data) -

YHRD - Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (Forensic and scientific community data) -

Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – mtDNA

HvrBase++ (mitochondrial, autosomal, and X-DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank -

MitoMap - curated mtDNA database and compendium of publications, supported by NIH and grants from other organizations -

mitoSearch (FTDNA and publicly submitted data) -

mtDB - Human Mitochondrial Genome Database -

mtDNAcommunity - Family Tree DNA owned - mtDNA Phylogeny (Tree) following Dr. Doron Behar's proposed realignment called the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) -

Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group mitochondrial DNA DB (SMGF data) - (acquired by so the database URL may change)

STRbase - NIST -

Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – autosomal / atDNA

1000 Genomes - international collaboration - first project to sequence the genomes of a large number of people, to provide a comprehensive resource on human genetic variation -

dbGaP - (NIH-NCBI) "database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) was developed to archive and distribute the results of studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype." Some information is publicly available; access to some information is controlled -

dbSNP - NIH SNP database -

GenBank - DNA sequence information for humans and other species, data for published scientific papers -
- check out tools and information at
- NCBI Genome Map Viewer -

HapMap - international project to study disease, but has a genome browser and links to information -

HvrBase++ (autosomal, mitochondrial, and X-DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank -

OpenSNP - open-source project of several masters students inspired by 23andMe tests ( - allows customers of direct-to-customer genetic tests (23andMe, deCODEme as of 30 August 2012) to publish their test results, find others with similar genetic variations, learn more about their results, find the latest primary literature on their variations and help scientists to find new associations. -
- nice for links on a SNP to other sites such as SNPedia, PLOS pubs, Mendeley pubs, users who share the SNP

STRbase - NIST -

Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – X-DNA

HvrBase++ (X-DNA, autosomal, and mitochondrial DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank -

DNA Tools (WFN) - Administrative Tools, Information, and Web space
WFN Reference Archive - Reference Information

Athey - Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor

FTDNA - Family Tree DNA - Thomas Krahn's Y Chromosome Browser

McDonald - Doug McDonald's TMRCA Calculator

McGee - Dean McGee's Y-Utility: Y-DNA Comparison Utility, Ysearch Mode

Morse - Webpages by Stephen P. Morse, One-Step Tools for Genetics (DNA)
  • Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) - Fetching DNA Markers in One Step - fetches your Y-DNA test results from Family Tree DNA or from the Ysearch database (requires your login information).
  • Updating Ysearch DNA Markers in One Step - fetches your Y-DNA test results from FTDNA and updates an existing account in the Ysearch database (requires your login information).
  • Searching for Matches in the Sorenson Database in One Step - allows manual input of Y-DNA values or extracts values for comparison (requires your login information).
  • Haplogroups - Predicting Haplogroups in One Step - derived from Whit Athey's haplogroup predictor.
  • Group Chart - Building a Color-Coded DNA-Group Chart in One Step - builds a haplotype table from data extracted from FTDNA, Ysearch, or a user-created spreadsheet (requires your login information).
  • Distances - Obtaining DNA Distances in One Step - computes genetic distance between a group of people (based on Group Chart tool, similar to McGee Y-DNA Utility
  • Migration Details - Determining Your Ancestor's Migration Details in One Step - enter a haplogroup to display a narrative migration trail from one of several sources
  • Migration Map - Mapping Your Ancestor's Migration Path in One Step - enter a haplogroup to display a charted migration trail

Pike - David Pike's Utilities for Family Tree DNA and/or 23andMe autosomal results

Pike - David Pike's Phasing Tools

SHAPEIT- Segmented HAPlotype Estimation and Imputation Tool

Stanford - Stanford University's Interpretome - utilities written as exercises for students in a course on Personalized Medicine and Genomics. Includes ancestry painting after comparing autosomal DNA test data to Hapmap2 or Hapmap3 and several other ways of exploring your DNA results.

See Debbie's GATA GACC! DNA and Genetic Genealogy presentation for basic DNA information.

See Debbie's Maternal Lines: Using Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presentation for mtDNA information.

See Debbie's Paternal Lines: Using Y-DNA presentation for Y-DNA information.

See Debbie's Going Nuclear: DNA Discoveries to Trace All Lines of Descent presentation for Autosomal DNA (atDNA) information.

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CG, Certified Genealogist, CGL, and Certified Genealogical Lecturer are service marks of the Board for Certification of Genealogists®, used under license by board certificants after periodic evaluation.
Wayne Research — PO Box 397 — Cushing, TX 75760-0397
© 2005–2014, Debbie Parker Wayne, CG, CGL, All Rights Reserved