DNA Reference Works
Journals Articles - DNA and GenealogyLeary, Helen F. M., Certified Genealogist. "Sally Hemings's Children: A Genealogical Analysis of the Evidence." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 89 (September 2001), 165-207. Special issue on Jefferson-Hemings.
Lustenberger, Anita A., Certified Genealogist and certified genetic counselor. "Genetics & Genealogy," genetics column in New England Ancestors, starting in Fall 2002 issue.
Moneta, Daniela, Certified Genealogist. “Identifying the Children of David Pugh and Nancy Minton of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee,” National Genealogical Society Quarterly 96 (March 2008): 13-22.
Moneta, Daniela, Certified Genealogist. "Virginia Pughs and North Carolina Wests: A Genetic Link from Slavery in Kentucky." National Genealogical Society Quarterly 97 (September 2009), 179-194. Demonstrates the use of DNA to help determine the parentage of a family descended from slaves.
Morse, Stephen P. "From DNA to Genetic Genealogy, Everything you wanted to know but were afraid to ask." Association of Professional Genealogists Quarterly (March 2009), 27-37.
Morse, Stephen P. "Genealogy Beyond the Y Chromosome: Autosomes Exposed." (http://stevemorse.org/).
Wayne, Debbie Parker. "An Introduction to DNA and Genetic Genealogy." Texas State Genealogical Society Stirpes 49 (June 2009), 21-25.
Wayne, Debbie Parker, Certified Genealogist. "Genetic Genealogy: Getting the Most from DNA Test Results in 2011." Texas State Genealogical Society Stirpes 51 (September 2011), 29-34.
Books, e-books, and Journals - DNA and GenealogyNational Genealogical Society Quarterly, Theme Issue on Genetics and Genealogy, Vol. 93, No. 4, December 2005.
Bettinger, Blaine, MD, PhD. I Have the Results of My Genetic Genealogy Test, Now What? (self-published, 2008); v2.0 download at http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/wp-content/uploads/InterpretingTheResultsofGeneticGenealogyTests.PDF covers Y-DNA and mtDNA.
A v2.1 version with atDNA added is available from http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf-docs/Interpreting-Genetic-Genealogy-Results_web_optimized.pdf.
Fitzpatrick, Colleen and Andrew Yeiser. DNA and Genealogy. Fountain Valley, Cal., Rice Book Press, 2005.
Fitzpatrick, Colleen. Forensic Genealogy. Fountain Valley, Cal., Rice Book Press, 2005.
Note: The Fitzpatrick books go into more of the technical details of DNA analysis for genealogical purposes.
Hill, Richard. Finding Family: My Search for Roots and the Secrets in My DNA. n.p.: self-published, 2012. Order at Createspace.com or Amazon. (See my review.)
Hill, Richard. How to Identify Ancestors and Confirm Relationships through DNA Testing. Self-published e-book, 2009. Free download.
Kennett, Debbie. DNA and Social Networking: A Guide to Genealogy in the Twenty-first Century. Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press, 2011. Order at History Press or Amazon. (See my review.)
Shawker, Dr. Thomas. Unlocking Your Genetic History. Nashville, Tenn., Rutledge Hill Press, 2004.
Smolenyak, Megan Smolenyak and Ann Turner. Trace Your Roots with DNA. Emmaus, Penn., Rodale Press, 2004.
Books - DNA Technology and Forensics
Butler, John M. Forensic DNA Typing: Biology, Technology, and Genetics of STR Markers. Second edition. Burlington, Mass., Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.
(For a deeper understanding of the technological aspects of DNA and the process of analysis.)
Michaelis, Ron C., Robert G. Flanders, and Paula H. Wulff. A Litigator's Guide to DNA: From the Laboratory to the Courtroom. Burlington, Mass., Academic Press, 2008.
Perlin, Mark W., PhD, MD. "Easy Reporting of Hard DNA: Computer Comfort in the Courtroom." Forensic Magazine. Posted 10 August 2012. http://www.forensicmag.com/article/easy-reporting-hard-dna-computer-comfort-courtroom : 2012. Other similar articles available here.
DNA Advisory Board. "Statistical and Population Genetics Issues Affecting the Evaluation of the Frequency of Occurrence of DNA Profiles Calculated From Pertinent Population Database(s)." Forensic Science Communications. Online FBI journal. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/july2000/index.htm/dnastat.htm : 2012.
Books - DNA and Deep Ancestry of Humans
Olson, Steve. Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002.
(Some of these books offer controversial theories on the migration of early humans.)
Oppenheimer, Stephen. The Origins of the British, A Genetic Detective Story: The Surprising Roots of the English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh. New York: Carrol & Graf Publishers, 2006.
Note: JOGG article by Kevin D. Campbell analyzing Oppenheimer's clan definitions.
Sykes, Bryan. DNA USA. New York: Liveright c/o W. W. Norton, 2012.
Sykes, Bryan. The Seven Daughters of Eve. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2001.
Sykes, Bryan. Adam's Curse. New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2004.
Sykes, Bryan. Saxons, Vikings, and Celts: The Genetic Roots of Britain and Ireland. (Published in the UK as Blood of the Isles.) New York, W. W. Norton & Co., 2006.
Wells, Spencer. Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. New York, Random House, 2002.
Wells, Spencer. Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project. Washington, DC: National Genographic Society, 2006.
Wells, Spencer. Deep Ancestry Second Edition: How DNA Reveals the Roots of Your Family. DC: National Geographic Society, 2011.
Wells, Spencer. Pandora's Seed: The Unforeseen Cost of Civilization. New York: Random House, 2010.
Technical and Scientific PapersTechnical Papers on DNA can be found on many Web sites and using Google Scholar.
European Journal of Human Genetics, free access - http://www.nature.com/ejhg/archive/index.html
Family Tree DNA - http://www.familytreedna.com/scientific-papers.aspx or on the home page scroll down and click on "Scientific Papers"
Nature journal, free access to 1998-2005 - http://www.nature.com/ejhg/archive/index.html
PubMed Central - Open Access - http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/about/openftlist.html
WebsitesInternational Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) - http://www.isogg.org/
ISOGG Wiki - http://www.isogg.org/wiki/
Journal of Genetic Genealogy (JOGG) - http://www.jogg.info/ (Combined Table of Contents list available here.)
DNA Testing Adviser (Richard Hill) - http://www.dna-testing-adviser.com/ - Free guide: How to Identify Ancestors and Confirm Relationships through DNA Testing and information on using DNA for adoption research
Identifinders (Colleen Fitzpatrick) - http://identifinders.com/
Forensic Genealogy (Colleen Fitzpatrick) - http://www.forensicgenealogy.info/
Genetealogy (Megan Smolenyak) - http://www.genetealogy.com/
Genetics And Us - http://www.geneticsand.us/
Kerchner's site with DNA glossary - http://www.kerchner.com/kerchdna.htm
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
Primer on Molecular Genetics (US DOE) - http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/publicat/primer/toc.html
Personal Genome Project Study Guide - http://www.pgpstudy.org/
Significant Online ArticlesBettinger, Blaine. "Problems with AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction?" The Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 19 June 2012. http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/2012/06/19/problems-with-ancestrydnas-genetic-ethnicity-prediction : 2012.
Bettinger, Blaine. "Q&A: Everyone Has Two Family Trees – A Genealogical Tree and a Genetic Tree" The Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 10 November 2009. http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/2009/11/10/qa-everyone-has-two-family-trees-a-genealogical-tree-and-a-genetic-tree/ : 2012.
Moore, CeCe. "My Review of AncestryDNA's Admixture Tool and a Glimpse into the Future of Genetic Genealogy." Your Genetic Genealogist Blog, posted 26 June 2012. http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/2012/06/my-review-of-ancestrydnas-admixture.html : 2012.
Owston, Jim. "Triangulating Autosomal DNA Data." The Lineal Arboretum Blog, posted 8 July 2012. http://linealarboretum.blogspot.com/2012/07/triangulating-autosomal-dna-data.html : 2012.
Mail Lists and GroupsDNA-Newbie Yahoo Forum - http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DNA-NEWBIE/
Genealogy DNA List on RootsWeb - http://lists.rootsweb.com/index/other/DNA/GENEALOGY-DNA.html
Autosomal DNA List on RootsWeb - http://lists.rootsweb.ancestry.com/index/other/DNA/AUTOSOMAL-DNA.html
There are also many lists related to DNA research on a specific surnames, DNA signatures, ethnic groups, and localities.
BlogsDeb's Delvings - Newsest article at http://debsdelvings.blogspot.com/ or all DNA related articles
Dienekes' Anthropology Blog - http://dienekes.blogspot.com/
DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy (Roberta Estes) - http://dna-explained.com/
Genealem's Genetic Genealogy (Emily Aulicino) - http://genealem-geneticgenealogy.blogspot.com/
Genetic Genealogist (Blaine T. Bettinger, ) - http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com/
Genomes Unzipped: Public Personal Genomics - http://www.genomesunzipped.org/
John Hawks Weblog - http://johnhawks.net/weblog
Lineal Arboretum, The (Jim Owston) - http://linealarboretum.blogspot.com/
On-line Journal of Genetic Genealogy (Steven Perkins) - http://jgg-online.blogspot.com/
Razib Khan Blog - http://www.razib.com/
Your Genetic Genealogist (CeCe Moore) - http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com
DNA Testing CompaniesISOGG Y-DNA Testing Comparison Chart - http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_testing_comparison_chart
ISOGG mtDNA Testing Comparison Chart - http://www.isogg.org/wiki/MtDNA_testing_comparison_chart
Converting markers between commercial companies - http://www.smgf.org/ychromosome/marker_standards.jspx
Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) - http://www.familytreedna.com/ - offers autosomal, Y-DNA, mtDNA, and specialized tests for ancestral purposes (2011: acquired DNA Heritage and ybase.org)
23andMe - http://www.23andme.com/ - offers autosomal DNA tests that cover both health-related and ancestral purposes
African Ancestry - http://www.africanancestry.com/
DNA Ancestry - not recommended until they make autosomal data available to those who test (Relative Genetics acquired by Amcestry.com; in 2012 Ancestry acquired Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group and GeneTree) - Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group (SMGF) - http://www.smgf.org/
DNA Fingerprint - http://www.dnafingerprint.com/
EthnoAncestry - http://www.ethnoancestry.com/
Oxford Ancestors - http://www.oxfordancestors.com/
Other Educational Information and VideosMiami Institute of Human Genomics - http://www.mihg.org/weblog/education/2009/11/online-genetics-courses.html
Science of DNA Testing (7 parts)
DNA (1 of 7)
DNA (2 of 7)
DNA (3 of 7)
DNA (4 of 7)
DNA (5 of 7) PCR
DNA (6 of 7) Profiles
DNA (7 of 7)
Miscellaneous Illustrations and Explanations
FTDNAChannel on YouTube - http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=UU-e1BqfubuSdFPHauQwZmlg&feature=plcp
Illustration of recombination
SMGF video on autosomal DNA
Cracking the Code of Life. PBS NOVA episode, broadcast 17 April 2001. Available on DVD http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-the-code-of-life.html : 2012. See "Related Links."
Cracking Your Genetic Code. PBS NOVA episode, broadcast 28 March 2012. Available online at http://video.pbs.org/video/2215641935 : 2012. See "Related Links."
Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – Y-DNASorenson Molecular Genealogy Group Y-DNA DB (SMGF data) - http://www.smgf.org/ (acquired by Ancestry.com so the database URL may change)
STRbase - NIST - http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/
US Y-STR DB (Forensic data for estimating population frequencies for forensic work) - http://www.usystrdatabase.com/
Ysearch (FTDNA data and publicly submitted data) - http://www.ysearch.org/
YHRD - Y Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (Forensic and scientific community data) - http://www.yhrd.org/
Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – mtDNAHvrBase++ (mitochondrial, autosomal, and X-DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank - http://www.hvrbase.org/
MitoMap - curated mtDNA database and compendium of publications, supported by NIH and grants from other organizations - http://www.mitomap.org/MITOMAP
mitoSearch (FTDNA and publicly submitted data) - http://www.mitosearch.org/
mtDB - Human Mitochondrial Genome Database - http://www.genpat.uu.se/mtDB/
mtDNAcommunity - Family Tree DNA owned - mtDNA Phylogeny (Tree) following Dr. Doron Behar's proposed realignment called the Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS) - http://www.mtdnacommunity.org/
Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Group mitochondrial DNA DB (SMGF data) - http://www.smgf.org/ (acquired by Ancestry.com so the database URL may change)
STRbase - NIST - http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/
Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – autosomal / atDNA1000 Genomes - international collaboration - first project to sequence the genomes of a large number of people, to provide a comprehensive resource on human genetic variation - http://www.1000genomes.org/
dbGaP - (NIH-NCBI) "database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) was developed to archive and distribute the results of studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype." Some information is publicly available; access to some information is controlled - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gap
dbSNP - NIH SNP database - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/SNP/
GenBank - DNA sequence information for humans and other species, data for published scientific papers - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/
- check out tools and information at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
- NCBI Genome Map Viewer - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mapview/
HapMap - international project to study disease, but has a genome browser and links to information - http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/
HvrBase++ (autosomal, mitochondrial, and X-DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank - http://www.hvrbase.org/
o OpenSNP - open-source project of several masters students inspired by 23andMe tests (http://opensnp.org/faq) - allows customers of direct-to-customer genetic tests (23andMe, deCODEme as of 30 August 2012) to publish their test results, find others with similar genetic variations, learn more about their results, find the latest primary literature on their variations and help scientists to find new associations. - http://opensnp.org/
- nice for links on a SNP to other sites such as SNPedia, PLOS pubs, Mendeley pubs, users who share the SNP
STRbase - NIST - http://www.cstl.nist.gov/strbase/
Publicly Accessible DNA Databases – X-DNAHvrBase++ (X-DNA, autosomal, and mitochondrial DNA) analysis tools for primates developed at the Max Planck Institute, monitors data sequences on GenBank - http://www.hvrbase.org/
DNA ToolsWorldFamilies.net (WFN) - Administrative Tools, Information, and Web space
WFN Reference Archive - Reference Information
Athey - Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor
FTDNA - Family Tree DNA - Thomas Krahn's Y Chromosome Browser
McDonald - Doug McDonald's TMRCA Calculator
McGee - Dean McGee's Y-Utility: Y-DNA Comparison Utility, Ysearch Mode
Morse - Webpages by Stephen P. Morse, One-Step Tools for Genetics (DNA)
- Family Tree DNA (FTDNA) - Fetching DNA Markers in One Step - fetches your Y-DNA test results from Family Tree DNA or from the Ysearch database (requires your login information).
- Updating Ysearch DNA Markers in One Step - fetches your Y-DNA test results from FTDNA and updates an existing account in the Ysearch database (requires your login information).
- Searching for Matches in the Sorenson Database in One Step - allows manual input of Y-DNA values or extracts values for comparison (requires your login information).
- Haplogroups - Predicting Haplogroups in One Step - derived from Whit Athey's haplogroup predictor.
- Group Chart - Building a Color-Coded DNA-Group Chart in One Step - builds a haplotype table from data extracted from FTDNA, Ysearch, or a user-created spreadsheet (requires your login information).
- Distances - Obtaining DNA Distances in One Step - computes genetic distance between a group of people (based on Group Chart tool, similar to McGee Y-DNA Utility
- Migration Details - Determining Your Ancestor's Migration Details in One Step - enter a haplogroup to display a narrative migration trail from one of several sources
- Migration Map - Mapping Your Ancestor's Migration Path in One Step - enter a haplogroup to display a charted migration trail
Pike - David Pike's Utilities for Family Tree DNA and/or 23andMe autosomal results
Pike - David Pike's Phasing Tools
SHAPEIT- Segmented HAPlotype Estimation and Imputation Tool
Stanford - Stanford University's Interpretome - utilities written as exercises for students in a course on Personalized Medicine and Genomics. Includes ancestry painting after comparing autosomal DNA test data to Hapmap2 or Hapmap3 and several other ways of exploring your DNA results.
See Debbie's GATA GACC! DNA and Genetic Genealogy presentation for basic DNA information.
See Debbie's Maternal Lines: Using Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presentation for mtDNA information.
See Debbie's Paternal Lines: Using Y-DNA presentation for Y-DNA information.
See Debbie's Going Nuclear: DNA Discoveries to Trace All Lines of Descent presentation for Autosomal DNA (atDNA) information.
CG, Certified Genealogist, CGL, and Certified Genealogical Lecturer are service marks of the Board for Certification of Genealogists®, used under license by board certificants after periodic evaluation.
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